Monday, September 05, 2016

The 2016 TWSC Writeshop Fellows

The Third World Studies Center (TWSC) announces the following successful applicants to the 2016 TWSC Writeshop on 7 - 9 November 2016. In no particular order, the TWSC welcomes the following writeshop fellows with their respective manuscript submissions:

1. Gilbert Macarandang, Associate Professor, Social Sciences Department, De La Salle University – DasmariƱas

Pagpoposisyon ng Kapangyarihang Politikal sa Prosesong Elektoral sa Probinsya ng Tayabas, 1846-1898

Considered as a major political activity, local election in the Philippines during the Spanish period became a colonial apparatus to control the political power in the pueblo politics where native elite as former datu and rajah were given the title gobernadorcillo and cabeza de barangay. This article locates the political power of the state, church, and elite in the electoral process during the Spanish colonialism from 1846 to 1898. To contextualize how these institutions position themselves to gain political power in the pueblo, this paper examines the local elections in the province of Tayabas (now Quezon Province) during the Spanish colonialism.

2. Jay Balmes Villafria Jr., Instructor, Department of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Central Luzon State University

The Struggle for Golden Harvests: Understanding the Political Economy of Rice Production in Nueva Ecija Province, 1902-1940

This article explores and interprets the state of local economy of the province of Nueva Ecija which was and still up to the present, a major rice-producing province. Utilizing statistical data and previous academic studies on the province during the American period (1902-1940), the paper focuses on the interplay between forces of production that significantly contributed to the province’s political economy: the peasants, the rich landlords/hacenderos, and the colonial/insular government represented by the political leaders. The paper concludes that the economic relationship between landlords and the peasants is capitalist in a sense that the former provides capital for production while the latter receive wages in exchange for their labor. The colonial government, on the other hand, maintains mutual relations with the landlords to maintain the capitalist status quo while alienating itself to the working class which is the peasants.

3. Frances Michelle Nubla, Research Assistant, Ateneo Social Science Research Center, Ateneo de Naga University

An Exploratory Study of the Dynamics of Single Parenting

The dual-parent family no longer reflects the reality of family structures. This can be observed by the presence of various alternative family forms. Among these, the single-parent families are considered the most vulnerable, hence merits investigation. According to studies, single-parent families operate at a deficit in terms of both financial and social capital which is not the case among traditional families and other types of alternative family forms because of the presence of another parent with whom child care or its cost can be shared (MacLanahan 1989; Biblarz, 1999; Dufur et. al. 2010). In contrast to earlier studies which mainly focused on the family structure and its detrimental effects to children, this paper argues that family structure is just one side of the story. This paper posits that that presence of other factors cultivate a favorable or unfavorable parenting experience which this paper attributes to gender, social class, and state policy; and the presence of a social network of support in the form of family and kinship relations. Findings from the semi-structured interview conducted with four males and four females found that the gender, social class, and the extended-family structure of the Filipino family are important factors in single parenting experience. On the other hand, while there is a presence of a state policy that is intended to help Filipino single parents, it does very little to address the difficulties they faced by the respondents interviewed. Particularly because the single parents interviewed are not aware of its benefits, which could be attributed to the lax nature of government in terms implementing programs intended for single parents.

4. Anderson V. Villa, Associate Professor, Social Sciences Department, Ateneo de Davao University

The Entertainment Industry and the Feminization of Filipino Migration to Japan

This paper reflects on the complex nature of the implicit relationship between the migration industry, specifically the entertainment industry, as a representative case study, and the factors affecting complexities and irregularities of the desire of Filipinas to work and reside in Japan. The study also reveals the major reasons why migrants made their way out of their country of origin in order to take a risk at a distant host country. It is however evident that their mobility was made possible through the active involvement of the actors in the entertainment industry. It is in this context that the whole feminization of migration process becomes only possible with the unwitting collaboration of both the industry and the female migrants.

5. Mary Josefti Nito, Instructor, Department of History, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Asia & the Pacific

Post-Disaster Heritage Management in the Philippines: Case Study: Guiuan Church in Eastern Samar

The aftermath of earthquakes and typhoons always leave behind a trail of altered lives and properties. Recognizing these realities, especially with the increasing intensity of these hazards due to climate change, programs and policies were created geared towards post-disaster rehabilitation and risk-reduction. These policies particularly the national framework for disaster risk reduction and management is unfortunately silent about the response, rehabilitation and recovery of the cultural heritage sites. Though not yet included in the national framework, there are existing efforts and interventions in the rehabilitation and reconstruction of cultural heritage sites destroyed by disasters. This study is an initial exploration of the existing processes and practices in risk preparedness and post-disaster heritage management in the Philippines. In particular, this paper will look into the Guiuan Church in Eastern Samar which is a declared National Cultural Treasure and, was destroyed by the Typhoon Haiyan back in 2013. The initial findings of this explores the idea of community-based conservation contrary to the dominant practice of material-based or experts-driven approach in conservation. This study looks into the living heritage approach as the more sustainable approach to conservation for empowering and enabling disaster-stricken communities such as Guiuan. This paper ultimately aims to contribute in the integration of post-disaster heritage management in the National Disaster Risk Reduction Management Plan 2011 to 2028 (NDRRMP). This is because the protection and rehabilitation of their heritage site is an important component to the rebuilding of their personal and communal resilience, because resilient communities move forward into the future carrying with them the heritage of their past.

6. Nicholas Michael C. Sy, MA History candidate, Ateneo de Manila University

Quantitative and Counter-intuitive Southern Tagalog: Why the nineteenth century was no more spatially mobile than the eighteenth century

The present paper challenges the common assumption that the nineteenth century was a much more spatially mobile time for Filipinos than the century that preceded it. It makes quantitative use of 2,705 entries on marriage registers from two pueblos in the Southern Tagalog region (Indang and San Pablo), to measure the magnitudes and directions of inter-pueblo relationships across the time period in question. Using exogamy as an indicator of mobility, the present paper comes to a surprising conclusion. Despite the region’s entry into the world market in the nineteenth century (and its resulting development of specializations and internal trade) mobility in the region remained unchanged. Akin Mabogunje’s (1970) Systems Approach to migration is used to frame the socio-economic and geographical realities most relevant to these trends in these statistics. Through an exploration of factors such as banditry, internal trade, geography, government requisitions, and government monopolies, the present paper outlines the institutions that channelled mobility in the region and made the above figures possible. At its close, implications are drawn in terms of applying the above template to future research into measuring regional integration.

7. Orville B. Tatcho, Instructor, College of Arts and Communication, University of the Philippines Baguio

Image Building Discourses in the 2016 Presidential Debates

In the months leading to the May 2016 national elections, the Commission on Elections (ComElec) partnered with three private-owned television stations to host a series of presidential debates in different formats. As a campaign communication style which is partially controlled by the candidates and their campaign teams, debates provide the candidates an opportunity to use their knowledge of certain issues as a vehicle for image building. Given the pervasiveness of image and representation over issue-based discussions in presidential campaigns, this paper aims to uncover the image building discourses of the candidates through an analysis of their statements and speeches in the debates. Using Benoit’s Functional theory of political campaign discourse and Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), this study found that dominant image building discourses in the debate relate to: a) the image of the office or the presidency and b) image of the candidates. Discourses on the image of the presidency or the office center on its requirements and importance over its functions. This indicates that the presidency is often framed in terms of personality (who is seated/ assumes office) and not policy (actions and functions). Moreover, the image constructed and represented by the candidates mix elements of populism and reformism, with emphasis on “tiwala” (trust) and “malasakit” (solicitude) as seeming staples in political campaigns. Overall, a critical reading of the messages of candidates in the debates will help voters understand why certain values and discourses predominate in democratic discussions.

8. Jude Vincent E. Parcon, Instructor, Division of Humanities, College of Arts and Sciences, UP Visayas

Filipino Television in the Middle East: Towards a Sense of National Identity

This study aims to identify whether Philippine Television contributes to the sense of national identity of Filipinos in the Middle East. Five primetime telenovelas aired for the last three months were considered in this study. There are a total of 22 participants in this study. Using the Social Identity Theory of Tajfel & Turner (1970 and 1980), the study is in the assumption that: a.) both in-groups have distinct, well-defined and identified social identities, b.) as a result of social comparison, the Filipino group resulted to a negative social identity, c.) Filipinos engage in social mobility to seek for positive distinctiveness, d.) as Filipinos engage in social mobility, their social identity of being a Filipino is still inherent. The study utilised the Collective Self Esteem Scale by Luhtanen & Crocker (1992) to measure the Filipinos’ sense of national identity as represented in four factors: 1.) Membership, 2.) Private, 3.) Public, and 4.) Identity. Results indicate that Filipinos in the Middle East have a high level of perception on their national identity. Moreover, the Philippine television has a significant contribution on the sense of national identity among Filipinos in the Middle East.